Section: User Commands (1)
Updated: 16 May 2003
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nemesis-ip - IP Protocol (The Nemesis Project)  


nemesis-ip [-vZ?] [-d Ethernet-device ] [-D destination-IP-address ] [-F fragmentation-options ] [-H source-MAC-address ] [-I IP-ID ] [-M destination-MAC-address ] [-p IP-protocol-number ] [-P payload-file ] [-S source-IP-address ] [-t IP-TOS ] [-T IP-TTL ]  


The Nemesis Project is designed to be a command line-based, portable human IP stack for UNIX-like and Windows systems. The suite is broken down by protocol, and should allow for useful scripting of injected packets from simple shell scripts.

nemesis-ip provides an interface to craft and inject IP packets allowing the user to inject an entirely arbitrary IP packet.  


-D destination-IP-address
Specify the destination-IP-address within the IP header.
-F fragmentation-options (-F[D],[M],[R],[offset])
Specify the fragmentation options:

-FD (don't fragment)
-FM (more fragments)
-FR (reserved flag)
-F <offset>

within the IP header. IP fragmentation options can be specified individually or combined into a single argument to the -F command line switch by separating the options with commas (eg. '-FD,M') or spaces (eg. '-FM 223'). The IP fragmentation offset is a 13-bit field with valid values from 0 to 8189. Don't fragment (DF), more fragments (MF) and the reserved flag (RESERVED or RB) are 1-bit fields.

NOTE: Under normal conditions, the reserved flag is unset.

Specify the IP-ID within the IP header.
-O IP-options-file
This will cause nemesis-ip to use the specified IP-options-file as the options when building the IP header for the injected packet. IP options can be up to 40 bytes in length. The IP options file must be created manually based upon the desired options. IP options can also be read from stdin by specifying '-O -' instead of an IP-options-file.
-p IP-protocol-number
Specify the IP-protocol-number as an integer within the IP header. Valid IP-protocol-numbers include:

0       IP          (pseudo protocol number)
1       ICMP        (internet control message protocol)
2       IGMP        (Internet Group Management)
3       GGP         (gateway-gateway protocol)
4       IP-ENCAP    (IP encapsulated in IP (officially ``IP''))
5       ST          (ST datagram mode)
6       TCP         (transmission control protocol)
7       UCL         (UCL)
8       EGP         (exterior gateway protocol)
9       IGP         (any private interior gateway)
10      BBN-RCC-MON (BBN RCC Monitoring)
11      NVP-II      (Network Voice Protocol)
12      PUP         (PARC universal packet protocol)
13      ARGUS       (ARGUS)
14      EMCON       (EMCON)
15      XNET        (Cross Net Debugger)
16      CHAOS       (Chaos)
17      UDP         (user datagram protocol)
18      MUX         (Multiplexing)
19      DCN-MEAS    (DCN Measurement Subsystems)
20      HMP         (host monitoring protocol)
21      PRM         (Packet Radio Measurement)
22      XNS-IDP     (Xerox NS IDP)
23      TRUNK-1     (Trunk-1)
24      TRUNK-2     (Trunk-2)
25      LEAF-1      (Leaf-1)
26      LEAF-2      (Leaf-2)
27      RDP         ("reliable datagram" protocol)
28      IRTP        (Internet Reliable Transaction)
29      ISO-TP4     (ISO Transport Protocol class 4)
30      NETBLT      (Bulk Data Transfer Protocol)
31      MFE-NSP     (MFE Network Services Protocol)
32      MERIT-INP   (MERIT Internodal Protocol)
33      SEP         (Sequential Exchange Protocol)
34      3PC         (Third Party Connect Protocol)
35      IDPR        (Inter-Domain Policy Routing Protocol)
36      XTP         (Xpress Tranfer Protocol)
37      DDP         (Datagram Delivery Protocol)
38      IDPR-CMTP   (IDPR Control Message Transport Protocol)
39      IDPR-CMTP   (IDPR Control Message Transport)
40      IL          (IL Transport Protocol)
41      IPv6        (Internet Protocol version 6)
42      SDRP        (Source Demand Routing Protocol)
43      SIP-SR      (SIP Source Route)
44      SIP-FRAG    (SIP Fragment)
45      IDRP        (Inter-Domain Routing Protocol)
46      RSVP        (Reservation Protocol)
47      GRE         (General Routing Encapsulation)
48      MHRP        (Mobile Host Routing Protocol)
49      BNA         (BNA)
50      IPSEC-ESP   (Encap Security Payload)
51      IPSEC-AH    (Authentication Header)
52      I-NLSP      (Integrated Net Layer Security TUBA)
53      SWIPE       (IP with Encryption)
54      NHRP        (NBMA Next Hop Resolution Protocol)
55      MOBILEIP    (MobileIP encapsulation)
57      SKIP        (SKIP)
58      IPv6-ICMP   (ICMP for IPv6)
59      IPv6-NoNxt  (No Next Header for IPv6)
60      IPv6-Opts   (Destination Options for IPv6)
61      any         (host internal protocol)
62      CFTP        (CFTP)
63      any         (local network)
64      SAT-EXPAK   (SATNET and Backroom EXPAK)
65      KRYPTOLAN   (Kryptolan)
66      RVD         (MIT Remote Virtual Disk Protocol)
67      IPPC        (Internet Pluribus Packet Core)
68      any         (distributed file system)
69      SAT-MON     (SATNET Monitoring)
70      VISA        (VISA Protocol)
71      IPCV        (Internet Packet Core Utility)
72      CPNX        (Computer Protocol Network Executive)
73      CPHB        (Computer Protocol Heart Beat)
74      WSN         (Wang Span Network)
75      PVP         (Packet Video Protocol)
76      BR-SAT-MON  (Backroom SATNET Monitoring)
77      SUN-ND      (SUN ND PROTOCOL-Temporary)
78      WB-MON      (WIDEBAND Monitoring)
80      ISO-IP      (ISO Internet Protocol)
81      VMTP        (Versatile Message Transport)
83      VINES       (VINES)
84      TTP         (TTP)
86      DGP         (Dissimilar Gateway Protocol)
87      TCF         (TCF)
88      IGRP        (IGRP)
89      OSPFIGP     (Open Shortest Path First IGP)
90      Sprite-RPC  (Sprite RPC Protocol)
91      LARP        (Locus Address Resolution Protocol)
92      MTP         (Multicast Transport Protocol)
93      AX.25       (AX.25 Frames)
94      IPIP        (Yet Another IP encapsulation)
95      MICP        (Mobile Internetworking Control Protocol)
96      SCC-SP      (Semaphore Communications Sec. Protocol)
97      ETHERIP     (Ethernet-within-IP Encapsulation)
98      ENCAP       (Yet Another IP encapsulation)
99      any         (private encryption scheme)
100     GMTP        (GMTP)
103     PIM         (Protocol Independent Multicast)
108     IPComp      (IP Payload Compression Protocol)
112     VRRP        (Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol)
255     Reserved

-P payload-file
This will cause nemesis-ip to use the specified payload-file as the payload when injecting IP packets. For packets injected using the raw interface (where -d is not used) the maximum payload size is 65475 bytes. For packets injected using the link layer interface (where -d IS used), the maximum payload size is 1440 bytes. Payloads can also be read from stdin by specifying '-P -' instead of a payload-file.

Windows systems are limited to a maximum payload size of 1440 bytes for IP packets.

The payload file can consist of any arbitary data though it will be most useful to create a payload resembling the structure of a packet type not supported by nemesis. Used in this manner, virtually any IP packet can be injected.

-S source-IP-address
Specify the source-IP-address within the IP header.
Specify the IP-type-of-service (TOS) within the IP header. Valid type of service values:

2  (Minimize monetary cost)
4  (Maximize reliability)
8  (Maximize throughput)
24 (Minimize delay)

NOTE: Under normal conditions, only one type of service is set within a packet. To specify multiple types, specify the sum of the desired values as the type of service.

Specify the IP-time-to-live (TTL) within the IP header.
-v verbose-mode
Display the injected packet in human readable form. Use twice to see a hexdump of the injected packet with printable ASCII characters on the right. Use three times for a hexdump without decoded ASCII.


-d Ethernet-device
Specify the name (for UNIX-like systems) or the number (for Windows systems) of the Ethernet-device to use (eg. fxp0, eth0, hme0, 1).
-H source-MAC-address
Specify the source-MAC-address (XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX).
-M destination-MAC-address
Specify the destintion-MAC-address (XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX).
-Z list-network-interfaces
Lists the available network interfaces by number for use in link-layer injection.

NOTE: This feature is only relevant to Windows systems.



Nemesis-ip returns 0 on a successful exit, 1 if it exits on an error.  


Send concise and clearly written bug reports to  


Jeff Nathan <>  


nemesis-arp(1), nemesis-dns(1), nemesis-ethernet(1), nemesis-icmp(1), nemesis-igmp(1), nemesis-ospf(1), nemesis-rip(1), nemesis-tcp(1), nemesis-udp(1)




This document was created by man2html and sed, using the manual pages.
Time: 08:52:26 GMT, November 04, 2003